By Richard E. Prange (auth.), Richard E. Prange, Steven M. Girvin (eds.)
***e FACHGEBIET*** Physics ***INTERESSENTENGRUPPE*** Of curiosity to physics, fabrics technology, and chemistry.- point: Graduate textual content ***URHEBER*** R.E. Prange, college of Maryland, university Park, MD; S.M. Girvin, Indiana collage, Bloomington, IN (Eds.) ***TITEL*** The Quantum Hall Effect
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6 Quantum Hall Resistors The potentiometric measurement system of Fig. 2 0) step of the GaAs device pictured in Fig. 2. The result is shown in Fig. 5. 01 ppm random measurement uncertainty. 01 ppm over a magnetic field range that is Z~ of the central value. Clearly this device has a Hall step that is suitable for use as a resistance standard. High resolution measurement systems can be used to compare the Hall resistance RH with that of wire-wound reference resistors. An example is displayed in Fig.
L away from the Fermi level. Therefore. low-energy inelastic processes. • phonon absorption at low but finite temperature. can have no influence on the occupation of these states. More precisely. the influence of inelastic processes will be small in proportion to exp(-WIRBT) where W is the energy necessary to raise an extended-state electron to the Fermi level. RB is Boltzmann's constant. and T is the temperature. To summarize. it is expected that the densi ty of states evolves from sharp Landau levels to a broader spectrum of levels as the impurity potential is turned on.
For the ith level. 2) where h is the Planck constant. At cold enough temperatures it should be possible in a perfectly made device for the n carriers per unit area to completely occupy all the inB states per unit area of the filled levels at appropriate values of B --leaving all other levels empty because of an energy gap at the Fermi level. 3) and the quantum Hall resistance RH. defined as the ratio of VH and I. would have a unique. universal value when the allowed states of the first i quantum levels were just-filled.