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By Gordon Hughes, Magda Lovei

"...transition has proved to be a far longer and more challenging procedure than so much had expected, and development has diversified. by way of 1998 just one nation, Poland (which launched into financial reform earlier than the remainder of the region), had reestablished sustained fiscal progress and handed the pretransition point of actual gross family product (GDP)." - From 'Economic Reform and Environmental functionality in Transition Economies' so much international financial system and environmental watchers anticipate the transition to a industry economic climate to yield environmental advantages. The altering incentives industry economic climate introduces may still foster extra effective creation, higher use of assets, and elevated neighborhood enter. The complicated reformers of the important and japanese ecu (CEE) nations proved this to be the case. They enhanced power potency and diminished emissions depth of pollution. The slower-reforming international locations of the Newly autonomous States (NIS) additionally skilled decrease pollutants. in spite of the fact that, that downturn coincided with the industrial decline, which close down many significant polluters. This document reports growth in environmental developments due to the fact that transition begun. It seems at air and water pollutants and well-being symptoms within the traits and in mild of the environmental matters pointed out within the Environmental motion Programme for relevant and jap Europe. It maintains and builds at the global Bank's paintings in studying the environmental results of transition, restructuring, and privatization as a way to choosing precedence parts for funding and coverage projects. The file will curiosity environmental coverage makers and practitioners.

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Lower production has meant reduced volumes of pollution, especially air and water pollution from large enterprises, but unless efficiency and environmental performance are improved, any short-term reductions may easily be reversed when production levels recover. This study attempts to evaluate the combined effects of economic reform and other measures on environmental performance in the transition economies since 1989-90. It examines several underlying factorseconomic growth, industrial structure, energy intensity, and the composition of fuel usethat affect trends in volumes of emissions, emissions intensities, and ambient environmental quality.

Rather, the low-octane requirements of the old vehicle fleet and the availability of excess refining capacity allowed the production of gasoline without the addition of lead (Lovei 1997). Without policies to support lead phaseout, the recent reductions in vehicular lead emissions in NIS countries may be reversed in the future as the size and octane demand of their vehicle Table 1. 550Source: World Bank estimates based on DEPA 1998. Page 13 Box 3. Pan-European strategy to phase out leaded gasoline Lead phaseout received strong political attention at the Third Environment for Europe Conference in Sofia in October 1995.

The Environmental Action Programme (EAP) for Central and Eastern Europe, which was endorsed by the environmental ministers of 50 countries during the 1993 Environment for Europe Conference in Lucerne, Switzerland, identified a number of serious environmental problems requiring immediate and urgent attention. They included: · High levels of airborne particulates from coal burning by domestic sources, small-scale enterprises, power and heating plants, and metallurgical plants · High levels of sulfur dioxide and other gases, especially in combination with particulate matter, emitted from power and industrial plants and from household burning of high-sulfur coal and fuel oil · Lead in air and soil stemming from emissions from industry and transport using leaded gasoline · Contamination of drinking water, mainly by nitrates originating from agricultural enterprises and by heavy metals and toxic chemicals originating from industries.

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