By Koul, O., Cuperus, G. W. (Eds.)
This e-book, meant for all these interested in learning entomology, crop security and pest administration, has 18 overview chapters on themes starting from the ecological results of chemical keep watch over practices to the ecology of predator-prey and parasitoid-host structures. to be had In Print
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Extra info for Ecologically based integrated pest management
Selection pressure for new races is highest for obligate pathogens since either they must develop new races or biotypes or they become extinct. Examples would be cereal rusts or powdery mildew pathogens. An example of an organism with sexual reproduction and multiple infection cycles would be potato late blight where both mating types occur and favourable conditions exist for infection and sporulation throughout the crop season. Vertical resistance has been highly stable for pathogens with a single disease cycle per year or where no sexual stage exists.
Although not a physical barrier per se, reflective mulches have been shown to reduce transmission of pathogens vectored by insects. It is thought that the reflective materials disorient the insect vectors such that they do not feed or alight on protected plants by reflected light. This effect lasts only until the plant canopy covers the reflective mulch (Agrios, 2005). Eradication and Reduction of Pathogen Inoculum Methods that reduce or eradicate pathogen inoculum include host eradication, removal of infected plant tissue, sanitation, crop rotation, heat treatment, use of antagonistic plants, trap crops, soil fumigation, disinfection/disinfestation of equipment, storage facilities, pots and many forms of biological control (Zadoks and Schein, 1979; Fry, 1982; Gnanamanickam, 2002; Agrios, 2005).
These gases have also been shown to be effective in controlling soil-borne pathogens such as Pythium, Aphanomyces, Rhizoctonia and Verticillium. The M. , 2004b). Although both Trichoderma harzianum and T. , 2004). Therefore, Trichoderma sp. will be discussed under the induced-resistance section and under other modes of action. Parasitism BCAs with parasitism as their mode of action have been developed for both foliar and soilborne pathogens. Examples of parasitic BCAs used for control of soil-borne pathogens include T.