Download Dictionary of Global Climate Change by W. John Maunder (auth.) PDF

By W. John Maunder (auth.)

Climate, weather switch, weather fluctuations and climatic developments are just many of the phrases used this day, in not just meetings, medical symposia and workshops, but additionally parliaments and in discussions all through society. To climatologists those phrases can be renowned; to the majority of humans, notwithstanding, they're new, and so they require definition and clarification. the area Meteorological association (WMO) inherited an curiosity and involvement within the reports of weather and weather switch from its predecessor, the foreign Meteorological association (IMo), which used to be confirmed in 1873. by means of 1929 the IMO had arrange a fee for Climatology to accommodate concerns regarding weather reviews. while, in 1950, the realm Meteorological association assumed the mantle of the IMO, it retained the fee which, between different obligations, had already famous the necessity for the definition and explana­ tion of phrases utilized in climatology. It also needs to be acknowledged that a lot of what we now learn about weather derives from the clinical and technical programmes co­ ordinated through IMO and now, to a far better volume, through WMO. In 1979, the 1st global weather convention made an review of the prestige of data of weather and weather variability, and advised the institution of an international weather Programme. this advice used to be absolutely counseled by way of the 8th global Meteorological Congress, and the realm weather Programme used to be subse­ quently confirmed by way of WMO in co-operation with the foreign Council of clinical Unions (ICSU) and the United international locations setting Programme (UNEP).

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Carbon dioxide is included despite being an important constituent of the "natural" atmosphere, because its addition in large amounts arising from the burning of fossil fuels has a strong influence on the greenhouse effect. Natural sources of several of these constituents include volcanoes, forest fires, and lightning (which produces nitrogen compounds). Major sources of pollution are burning of fossil fuels (coal and oil) in electricity generating stations, the waste products of oil refineries and the manufacturing industry in general, domestic heating by coal fires (much diminished in advanced societies), and the internal combustion engine; other sources include animal waste from farrning (which produces ammonia), the use of fertilizers and pesticides, aerosol sprays and refrigerants (CFCS), accidental releases from nuclear reactors, rubbish dumps/tips and sewage works, and slash-and-burn methods as used in some tropical regions.

Agrometeorological Data System The Agrometeorological Data System (AMDASS) is the agrometeorological database of FAO, originally constituted as the contribution of the agroclimate unit to the Agroecological Zones Project. The database has been growing constantly through exchanges with other databases and through the systematic collection of climatic bulletins and monographs. AMDASS was recently transferred to and consolidated under CLICOM, the climate computer database system of the WMO World Climate Programme.

Bogus observations are usually placed in regions of sparse or faulty data. Bora A cold dry wind blowing offthe highlands of the Yugoslavian region and affecting the Adriatic coast. boreal forest The conifer forest that occurs in the low Arctic regions with a long and cold winter and a short growing season. It gives way to tundra at more northern latitudes. bottom water The cold dense water that lies at the bottom of the oceans in contact with the ocean floor. It is formed in high latitudes as a result of the formation of sea-ice and has characteristics distinctly different from the sea water immediately above it.

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