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By Joseph M. Kirshner

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I n t h e f o r w a r d d i r e c t i o n t h e fluid d o e s n o t e n t e r t h e c u p . T h e fluid flows t h r o u g h t h e t h r o a t a n d t h e n i n t o a diffuser s e c t i o n t o m i n i m i z e f o r w a r d losses. M e a s u r e m e n t s o n scroll d i o d e s of v a r i o u s g e o m e t r i e s h a v e y i e l d e d p e r f o r m a n c e r a t i o s in t h e r a n g e f r o m 3 t o 7 [30]. W i t h careful r e d e s i g n t h e r a t i o m a y i n c r e a s e t o a b o u t 10.

51) W e a s s u m e s m a l l c h a n g e s in p r e s s u r e a n d t h e r e f o r e s m a l l c h a n g e s i n v o l u m e so that V=V+V, w h e r e V'/V ρ = ρ+ρ', p = p + p' < 1, s o t h a t E q . 53) M w h e r e ß is t h e b u l k m o d u l u s . Inserting this into Eq. 52), M q = dV/dt + (V/ß ) dp/dt M \ ^T T^ qdt + dp (2 P Ap dp · 54) β Μ dV/dp is often c a l l e d t h e c o m p l i a n c e . 1 Passive Components Spring-Loaded Piston A s a p a r t i c u l a r e x a m p l e c o n s i d e r fluid p u s h i n g a g a i n s t a s p r i n g - l o a d e d m a s s less p i s t o n t h a t is v e n t e d t o a m b i e n t o n t h e o p p o s i t e side ( F i g .

0 0 . 20) 2 28 Ο I Ο I 20 I 40 I 60 I 80 I 100 I 120 I 140 Passive C o m p o n e n t s ι 160 ι 180 Included angle , θ , degrees Fig. 14 Total loss coefficients for diffusers. I f w e a s s u m e t h a t t h e profiles a t t h e i n l e t a n d o u t l e t o f t h e s u d d e n e n l a r g e m e n t a r e u n i f o r m , t h e a p p a r e n t loss coefficient c a n b e o b t a i n e d f r o m E q s . 11) a n d ( 2 . 15 s h o w s t h e loss coefficients f r o m t h e s u d d e n e n l a r g e m e n t .

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