Download Design of heterogeneous catalysts : new approaches based on by Umit S. Ozkan PDF

By Umit S. Ozkan

This long-awaited reference resource is the 1st e-book to target this significant and scorching subject. As such, it presents examples from a big selection of fields the place catalyst layout has been in accordance with new insights and figuring out, providing such smooth and critical themes as self-assembly, nature-inspired catalysis, nano-scale structure of surfaces and theoretical tools. With its inclusion of the entire precious and robust instruments for the rational layout of catalysts, it is a real "must have" e-book for each researcher within the box.

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Extra resources for Design of heterogeneous catalysts : new approaches based on synthesis, characterization and modeling

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9 after cooling and transfer in uncontrolled atmospheres: the disorder is seen as the consequence of the decomposition of the active phase. Similar terminations [19, 32, 116, 133] were also seen on other MMO catalysts. The author regrets that only limited discussion [115, 118, 137, 140, 201, 244, 247, 248] about termination issues in high-performance catalysts can be found in the literature, which may be due to difficulties in observation. There is no common conclusion about the effect of amorphous structuring as no clear distinction is made between surface disorder being not an artifact of observation (“good”) and bulk amorphicity as lack of crystallinity of the whole material (“bad”).

4 Active Oxygen Species giving rise to excess active oxygen. This will lead to over-oxidation with the resulting energy release triggering re-crystallization of the amorphous oxide and hence causing deactivation; hence there is a clear optimum of defects in a catalyst that seems to be much closer to nano-sized well-ordered entities rather than to highly disordered or amorphous solids. The enormous body of experimental observations [16, 25, 54, 80, 87, 113, 118, 141–143] on oxygen ion diffusion in conjunction with selective oxidation does not, however, allow us to conclude directly that this oxygen is relevant for catalytic selective oxidation under conditions of an oxygen chemical potential that is equal to or larger than the decomposition potential of the catalyst; such conditions always apply when gas-phase oxygen is co-fed with the organic substrate, and usually in stoichiometric excess over the desired extent of oxidation.

Besides the ubiquitous “lattice oxygen” there are alternative concepts of reactive oxygen species that will be described in the next section. A critical material property linking alkane activation and alkane oxidation is that of acidity. Selective oxidation always requires the management of protons, thus calling for carefully designed acid–base properties. This is also advocated in the literature [8, 92, 99–101] but only limited hard information can be found on this difficult issue – hampered severely by a practical definition of acid–base properties on a solid when no redox-active probe molecules [102] can be applied.

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