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By Inigo Gutierrez, Juan Meléndez, Erik Hernández

Varactors are passive semiconductor units utilized in digital circuits, as a voltage-controlled means of storing strength to be able to increase the volume of electrical cost produced. some time past, using inexpensive fabrication procedures reminiscent of complementary steel oxide semiconductor (CMOS) and silicon germanium (SiGe) have been stored for built-in circuits operating in frequency levels lower than the GHz. Now, the elevated operating frequency of radio frequency built-in circuits (RF ICs) for communique units, and the craze of system-on-chip expertise, has driven the necessities of varactors to the restrict. because the frequency of RF functions keeps to upward push, it really is crucial that passive units similar to varactors are of optimal caliber, making this a serious layout factor.

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Extra info for Design and Characterization of Integrated Varactors for RF Applications

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However, the difference in the quality factor is small enough to be considered insignificant. References Gutie´rrez, I. (2004) Design and characterization of integrated varactors for RF applications. D. Thesis, Tecnun, University of Navarra, Spain. Herna´ndez, E. 8 mm technology. D. Thesis, Tecnun, University of Navarra, Spain. Maget, J. (2002) Varactors and inductors for integrated RF circuits in standard MOS technologies. D. Thesis, Munich, Germany. Pedersen, E. (2001) RF CMOS varactors for wireless applications.

4 Influence of metallization on the quality factor and the tuning range. 22 Influence of metallization on resonant frequency. There is a slight increase in the absolute capacitance value. 4. The quality factor should increase as a result of the reduction of the parasitic resistance of the connections. However, this reduction is so small that the quality factor hardly varies. 22. References ´ s. IEEE Andreani, P. and Mattison, S. (2000) On the use of MOS varactors in RF VCO Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 35(6), 905–910.

E2(t) electric field between the gate contact and the accumulation zone: this is generated as a result of the voltage difference between the two. It produces:  capacitance coupling through the gate oxide. E3(t) electric field in the depletion zone: this appears as a result of the voltage difference between the gate oxide and the N well. It causes:  capacitance in the charge depletion zone under the gate. E4(t) electric field between the depletion zone and the source/drain terminal: this causes:  parasitic capacitance between the depletion zone and the Nþdiffusions.

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