By United Nations
This identify addresses a few key matters deciding upon the good fortune or failure of sustainable democratization within the zone. apart from Israel, the constituent states can't but warrantly a direction towards sustainable democracy. circulation towards political, fiscal and cultural liberalization has so far introduced instability and violence to the quarter, as conventional and spiritual values clash with secular ethics, norms and practices. Drawing on analyses of Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria - in addition to the North African countries of Algeria, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia - this publication examines styles of democratization, and political and financial transition. The members finish that during order to develop democratization procedures, reforms needs to be sluggish and arranged and monitored from the pinnacle, whereas supplemented by way of a steady approach towards the institution of a broad-based and generally supported civil society.
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Extra resources for Democratization in the Middle East: Experiences, Struggles, Challenges
4, Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986; Edward D. Mansﬁeld and Jack Snyder, ‘‘Democratization and the Danger of War,’’ International Security, vol. 20, Summer 1995, pp. 5–38; Larry Diamond, Marc F. , Democracy’s Victory and Crisis, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. UNDP, Arab Human Development Report 2002, New York: United Nations Development Programme, 2002, p. 2. Robert A. Dahl, Democracy and Its Critics, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1989, p.
External actors should apply fewer sticks and more carrots – sticks antagonize the population, radicalize some segments, trigger violence, and make it all the more difﬁcult for governments committed to gradual democratization to keep the process on track. Eventually, a working democracy and a regional community that values security, justice, and peace over historical claims and grievances will offer structures and processes for peaceful resolution of disputes and conﬂict. The management of (eventual) peace and stability in the Middle East must be founded on a ﬁrm commitment to democratization throughout the region and the consolidation of democratic systems supported by strong civic cultures.
First, broad sectors of the population need to be familiar with, and ideally fully embrace, civic virtues and a democratic political culture, manifested through the presence of a healthy, functioning, and inﬂuential civil society. Second, political leaders must be fully committed to reform processes, to the extent that they are prepared to relinquish some of their own powers to strengthen democratic governance. Third, regional conditions must be favorable – including the resolution of grave problems that divide the region and pitch individual states or groups of states against each other (such as the Israeli–Palestinian conﬂict, the ongoing military campaign against Iraq, or the support by some, and objection by others, of America’s continued ‘‘war on terrorism’’).