By Laurens Winkelhagen, Mehdi Dastani, Jan Broersen (auth.), Matteo Baldoni, Ulle Endriss, Andrea Omicini, Paolo Torroni (eds.)

The workshop on Declarative Agent Languages and applied sciences is a we- validated venue for researchers drawn to sharing their studies within the parts of declarative and formal facets of brokers and multi-agent structures, and in engineering and expertise. this day it really is nonetheless a problem to boost techno- gies which can fulfill the necessities of advanced agent platforms. The layout and improvement of multi-agent platforms nonetheless demands types and applied sciences that be certain predictability, allow function discovery, let for the veri?cation of houses, and warrantly ?exibility. Declarative techniques are most likely a helpful capacity for enjoyable the wishes of multi-agent approach builders and for specifying multi-agent platforms. DALT 2005, the 3rd version of the workshop, used to be held in Utrecht, The Netherlands, in July 2005, at the side of AAMAS 2005, the Fourth Int- nationwide Joint convention on brokers and Multiagent structures. Over 30 individuals attended the workshop con?rming the good fortune of the former variations in M- bourne 2003 (LNAI 2990) and ny 2004 (LNAI 3476). The workshop sequence is a discussion board of dialogue aimed either at assisting the move of decla- tive paradigms and strategies into the wider neighborhood of agent researchers andpractitioners, and atbringing theissuesofdesigningreal-world andcomplex agent structures to the eye of researchers engaged on declarative progr- ming and technologies.

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**Additional info for Declarative Agent Languages and Technologies III: Third International Workshop, DALT 2005, Utrecht, The Netherlands, July 25, 2005, Selected and Revised Papers**

**Example text**

Proposition 3. Let Bel(X) and P l(X) be Dempster-Shafer belief and plausibility functions, respectively, deﬁned on a certain mass function m. If the deduction X |= ϕ is based on the Closed World Assumption, then we have Bel(X) = P l(X). Proof. In the Closed World Assumption, we can test the belief in a certain formula ϕ by calculating Bel(maxΩ (ϕ)), and the belief in the negation of this formula by calculating Bel(Ω\maxΩ (ϕ)). Since Bel(X) is deﬁned as Y ⊆X m(Y ), then Bel(Ω\X) = Y ⊆X m(Y ) in the CWA.

The question is, of course, whether anything interesting can be said about static properties of such general states. That depends on the available language. Syntactic characterizations of states of knowledge are of course nothing new [7, 11, 12, 17]. The general idea is that the truth value of a formula such as Ki φ, representing the fact that agent i knows the formula φ, need not depend on the truth value of any other formula of the form Ki ψ. Of course, syntactic characterization is an extremely general approach which can be used for several different models of knowledge – including also closure under logical consequence.

In this section we provide such a characterization. We deﬁne the concept of a ﬁnitary theory, and show that the set of ﬁnitary theories is exactly the set of theories for which EC is complete. The proof builds upon the completeness result for the more general logic described in the previous section. Deﬁnition 9 (Finitary Theory) . A theory Γ is ﬁnitary iff it is consistent and for all φ, Γ ( 1 X1 ∧ ···∧ n Xn ) → φ for all sets X1 , . . , Xn ∈ ℘ﬁn (OL) ⇓ Γ where n is the number of agents. φ ✷ Complete Axiomatizations of Finite Syntactic Epistemic States 41 Informally speaking, a theory is ﬁnitary if provability of a formula under arbitrary upper bounds on epistemic states implies provability of the formula itself.