Download Database. Principles Programming Performance by Patrick O'Neil PDF

By Patrick O'Neil

This moment variation depends on an identical winning method that unique the 1st: it covers the foundations of database thought with unequalled thoroughness, and it conscientiously hyperlinks idea to the genuine global of database programming and management. A cautious dialogue of SQL criteria and a large number of examples drawn from genuine databases-Oracle, DB2, and Informix-complements the authors' concept-oriented guide, permitting you to improve product-specific realizing and to profit the $64000 adjustments among the SQL dialects that might assist you write transportable applications.

* Focuses commonly at the object-relational version that's speedily gaining attractiveness and revolutionizing the database undefined. assortment varieties and UDF's are completely covered.
* Introduces new relational beneficial properties of SQL taken from the newest models of contemporary preferred database items, Oracle, DB2, and Informix.
* deals thorough insurance of the SQL-99 common, together with additions designed that will help you take complete benefit of the object-relational model.
* presents elevated programming examples meant to enhance your knowing of transaction processing and mistake handling.
* Explains in actual fact the rules of logical database layout, together with these on the subject of the E-R version and normalization, with a few new illustrations and examples.
* provides the newest indexing and question processing strategies, comparable to bitmap indexing, and exhibits the way to use them to accomplish major functionality improvements.

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It is important to realize that the null value has different properties than those of the number 0 (for a numeric attribute) or a blank or null-string (for a character attribute). As an example, if we were to query the average q u a n t i t y on hand of all products in the PRODUCTS table, a zero value for the stapler product would bring down the average. However, the null value implies a more appropriate default behavior, in that the q u a n t i t y for the stapler product is left out of the average.

We define a new table S, whose heading is Head(S) = Bj. B n , by writing the assignment S(Blv . ,Bn) := R(A lv . ,An). The content of the new table S is exactly the same as the content of the old table R—that is, a row u is in S if and only if a row t exists in R such that u [Bi] = t[Ai] for i, 1 < i < n. The symbol := used in this assignment is called the assignment operation. 6 Set-Theoretic Operations We've caused ourselves extra effort by requiring that the assignment operation allow a redefinition of all the attribute names in the heading of the original table.

1 to illustrate various operations. We supplement tables in CAP with a few others. Fundamental Operations of Relational Algebra We distinguish two types of operations in relational algebra: set-theoretic operations that make use of the fact that tables are essentially sets of rows, and native relational operations that focus on the structure of the rows. Given two tables R and S where Head(R) = A\. . 6 Set-Theoretic Operations Head(S) is the same, we will define the following set of eight fundamental operations building on R and S to provide new tables.

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