By Laura C. Rivero, Jorge H. Doorn
One of many using forces that prompted the emergence of database know-how used to be the necessity to warrantly the standard of the knowledge kept. The software program layout is impacted by means of the houses of the information. facts homes could be visible from some degree of view as independently as attainable from the illustration version. within the database global, caliber of knowledge signifies that all these houses are correctly represented and preserved. effective upkeep of knowledge integrity has develop into a severe challenge for the reason that trying out the validity of a giant variety of constraints in a wide database, after every one transaction is a dear activity. aimed at designers and pros drawn to the conceptual points of integrity difficulties in several paradigms, Database Integrity: demanding situations and strategies effectively addresses those and quite a few different matters.
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Additional info for Database Integrity: Challenges and Solutions
1] Naturally, this issue concerns concepts such as isolation levels, concurrency control and others related to them. They constitute another perspective of the database integrity problem. THE SQL STANDARD FACILITIES The following sections have been framed taking into account the SQL-92 standard and preliminary documents of SQL3. Lately the main commercial database engines have adhered–in larger or smaller degrees– to the standard of SQL known in the literature as SQL2 or SQL-92 (Date & Darwen, 1997) and throughout the last years, to some characteristics published in the preliminary and the final document of SQL3 standard, also known as SQL-99 (SQL99-1, 1999; SQL99-2, 1999).
CHECK ON COMMIT ] Sybase has the database global option WAIT_FOR_COMMIT. If it is set to ON, or if a foreign key is defined using CHECK ON COMMIT in the CREATE TABLE statement, the database can be updated in such a way that if a referential integrity is violated, these violations are resolved before the changes are committed. In Sybase CHECK ON COMMIT clause overrides the WAIT_FOR_COMMIT database option. As considered in the SQL2 standard, Oracle table and column constraints can be specified as DEFERRABLE or NOT DEFERRABLE.
Because of the trigger reactive behavior, the system reaction is not limited to the typical rollback of the offending transaction (abort rules). Looked from a higher level of abstraction, integrity restrictions can be specified within the context of a maintenance integrity policy. In this context, the action to be performed over a database state if a constraint is violated is specified and thus the rules become repairing. Triggers are procedures that are implicitly invoked under the occurrence of certain preestablished events, generally data updates of a specific table.