By Brian Davis, Kaarel Kaljurand, Tobias Kuhn
This booklet constitutes the refereed lawsuits of the 4th foreign Workshop on managed average Language, CNL 2014, held in Galway, eire, in August 2014. The 17 complete papers and one invited paper provided have been rigorously reviewed and chosen from 26 submissions. the subjects comprise simplified language, undeniable language, formalized language, processable language, fragments of language, phraseologies, conceptual authoring, language iteration, and guided average language interfaces.
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Extra info for Controlled Natural Language: 4th International Workshop, CNL 2014, Galway, Ireland, August 20-22, 2014. Proceedings
See also Third . OWL novice errors noted by Rector et al.  were: (i) failure to make ‘hidden information’ in identifier names explicit, (ii) misunderstanding the universal restriction, (iii) misuse of logical ‘and’ and ‘or’, (iv) ignorance of the open-world assumption (and consequent failure to specify disjoint classes), and (v) incorrect placement of logical ‘not’. OWL novices in our study made errors (i) and (iv). Features in (ii), (iii), and (v) were little used. ’s list we would add (vi) confusion of general concepts (classes) with specific instances of the classes (‘individuals’ in OWL).
Et al. ) ASWC 2007 and ISWC 2007. LNCS, vol. 4825, pp. 142–155. Springer, Heidelberg (2007) 5. : Usability evaluation of ontology editors. Knowledge Organization 32(1), 1–9 (2006) 6. : Composing Questions through Conceptual Authoring. Computational Linguistics 33(1), 105–133 (2007) 7. : An interactive guidance process supporting consistent updates of RDFS graphs. , Hernandez, N. ) EKAW 2012. LNCS, vol. 7603, pp. 185–199. Springer, Heidelberg (2012) 8. : Collaborative multilingual knowledge management based on controlled natural language.
See also table 1 for a comparison of their attempts. In modelling usages of acids and whether they are solids, liquids or gases, only novice N2 and expert E7 attempted to model usages of common acids but N2 seemingly misunderstood the universal restriction by writing ‘Tartaric acid is used only in baking’. Expert E3 provided a plausible disjoint union for solution, liquid, solid, and gas classes. As a final example, consider how participants modelled the knowledge that acids can be weak or strong, or corrosive or non-corrosive.