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By A. C. Meigh

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Strength can be estimated indirectly from DT(Figure 13) using Figure 14 for <(>' Sands are assumed to be free draining. 5qc (qcin MN/m ) Direct methods are preferred to indirect methods. 2 Synopsis A direct estimation of strength may be made using Figure 15, which gives reasonable lower bound values of <(>' for fairly uniform, moderately compressible, normally-consolidated, predominantly quartz sands. For overconsolidated sands, <)>' is 1 or 2 degrees lower than would be estimated from Figure 15.

3 D y n a m i c shear modulus Figure 18 shows correlations obtained by Robertson and Campanella (1983) between dynamic shear modulus, cone resistance, a n d vertical effective stress. It is based o n 3 laboratory correlations between dynamic shear modulus, at small strains (less than 1 0 " % dynamic strain amplitude), and relative density (Seed and Idriss, 1970, Hardin and Drnevich, 1972), and the relationship between Drand qcdeveloped by Baldi et al. (1981). Dynamic shear modulus a t any strain level can be estimated using the Seed a n d Idriss reduction curves (Seed and Idriss, 1970).

Using a tip conforming to reference test requirements, Kjekstad et al. (1978), carried out C P T s with the 'Seacalf penetrometer, at shallow depth below the sea bed, in non-fissured N o r t h Sea glacial clays. 5. ) T h o r b u r n (1982) found higher Nk values for O C Late Glacial silty clays at Glasgow, Nk = 25 on average. 5-mm dia. laboratory specimens taken from 150-mm dia. samples from a stationary piston Deformability 47 sampler, so that they are probably unrepresentative of the over-all undrained shear strength.

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