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Rev. D62, 015009 (2000); K. Kawagoe, M. M. Nojiri and G. Polesello, Phys. Rev. D71, 035008 (2005).

We see broad spectra for energy distributions. Naturally, the more massive a particle is, the more energetic (energy and momentum) it is, but narrower for the energy spread. However, its kinetic energy Ki = Ei − mi is smaller for larger mi . 5. , pn−1,n ) dm2n−1,n . dP S2(pn−1,n ; pn−1, pn ) 2π 46 (A19) p1 p2 p pn−1 ... pn−1, n pn FIG. 15: Illustration for the recursion relation for an n-body kinematics. This recursion relation is particularly useful when we can write the intermediate mass integral for a resonant state.

This is seen from the definition of separation ∆R = ∆η 2 + ∆φ2 . (40) As a quantitative illustration, for two objects back-to-back in the central region, typically ∆η < ∆φ and ∆R ≈ ∆φ ∼ π. Another important consequence for the introduction of separation is that it provides a practical definition of a hadronic jet, and ∆R specifies the cone size of a jet formed by multiple hadrons within ∆R. B. 1. s-channel Singularity: Resonance Signals The invariant mass variable Searching for a resonant signal in the s-channel has been the most effective way of discovering new particles.

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