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By Stanislaw Lesniewski; S. J. Surma et al. (eds.)

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P. 70 . 14 As I shall try to demonstrate below, no object is one 'with contradictory properties', in other words there is no object that could be symbolized by the above expression which connotes 'contradictory properties'. Therefore, this expression denotes nothing; which does not, however, ~ean that it does not 'mean' anything. § 7. In~ufficient clarity in realizing the mutual relations between various linguistic structures results, quite often, in treating expressions which are not symbols as expressions possessing a symbolic function.

Stanislaw Lesniewski 22 'mortal' and 'a being·possessed of the property of mortality' - are synonymous, that is they connote identical properties. Remark 2. Lukasiewicz claims 5 that the propositions 'Aristotle was the founder of logic' and 'The Stagirite was the founder of logic' are synonymous; I think that this claim is false. , connotes the property of possessing the name 'Aristotle' 6 while the word 'Stagirite' does not connote that property. - Similarly, we can demonstrate the groundlessness of Lukasiewicz's view that "Two judgements: 'P has c' and 'P 1 has c1' ••• are synonymous if P denotes the same objects as P', and c denotes the same property as c1 ".

I have been using the word 'existing' as one of the synonyms of the word 'being'. This means that, defining the subject of a proposition, I can express it in the following form: existing, possessing the properties A, B, C, D, etc. ', I am prejudging that, as it is customary to say, 'X exists'. As I shall try to prove in Section 7, the proposition which adequately represents the sense that one usually inadequately symbolizes by the proposition 'X exists', is the 14 Stanislaw Lesniewski proposition 'some being is the object X'.

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