By J. T. Edwards
This paintings comprises contributions from specialists within the box on such elements as path and station making plans, diaphragm partitions, tunnelling, and civil defence specifications
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Two different platform layouts are possible with cut and cover stations: 1. e. 3); and 2. e. central platforms with the running tracks on either side). 4). The two are then linked by secondary tunnels to escalators and stairs giving access to the concourse area. However, this is by no means a universal solution, and even in difficult ground conditions spacious caverns can be formed to create attractive and convenient stations. The objectives of the railway authority and their financial constraints are major determinants of the station layout and style.
5). If a station is constructed by tunnelling methods the size of the concourse area is not necessarily affected by the dimensions of the platform level, and because of the high cost of tunnelling, concourses formed by this method will usually be less generous in size than when cut and cover construction is used. 5 A spacious concourse in a modern station constructed by the cut and cover method, well equipped with ticket-issuing machines and enquiry office More attractive designs are possible when the ground conditions allow the formation of larger voids by mining or tunnelling techniques.
An exact match between the model's predictions and the counted traffic cannot be expected, if only for the fact that the counts of actual traffic are themselves subject to daily and seasonal variation. Reliable data on origin and destination patterns are particularly important in calibrating the model so that it can be used with confidence for testing alternative diversion plans. If a complete set of origin-destination data is not available, some computer models contain routines that will estimate the missing information.