By José A. Rivera, P. Alexander and Z. M. Bacq (Auth.)
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Additional resources for Cilia, Ciliated Epithelium, and Ciliary Activity
Gray [405, 411] estimated that the rate is such that the distance travelled by the tip of the cilium is approximately 375 /x per second. Proetz [966, 975] reported that the so-called "ciliary streaming " is not uniform in all parts of the nose even when at its most rapid pace. He stated that ciliary beat and streaming of the fluid bathing the cilia are more active in the protected recesses of the meatuses than in the exposed portions. Hilding [483,490,502] observed that the speed is more rapid in the posterior two-thirds of the nose, where it may reach 10 mm per minute, than in the anterior one-third, where the air strikes the mucous membrane more directly.
The study of the formation and movement of mucus is of special importance in this connection. Sporadic reports of studies on ciliary currents have appeared in the literature ever sinoe the discovery of ciliary movement by Purkinje and Valentin  in 1834. Sharpey  in 1835 was the first to describe induced ciliary currents in the respiratory system when he determined that the direction of the currents was toward the pharynx. Among the outstanding scientists who have devoted time to these investigations are SchaefTer [1070, 1071], Bryant [142, 143], Gray , Lucas [703, 706, 712], Crookshank , Hilding [487, 488, 489, 490], Proetz [953, 971, 977], Negus [823, 827, 832], Yates , de Takats, Fenn and Jenkinson , Tremble [1217, 1218, 1219], and Dalhamn [237, 238].
CILIA IN REPRODUCTION 25 When the female rabbit was killed immediately after coition, it was observed that spermatozoa were present in the lower part of the uterus. Evidently the only way this area could be reached was by the activity of the ciliated epithelium of this region of the uterus. Muscular movement of this organ may have helped this activity. This was observed and confirmed by artificial insemination experiments. If spermatozoa are inseminated to a removed, quiescent uterus, kept under fresh conditions, the spermatozoa will be seen to travel from the distal end of the uterus to the proximal part of it in 1 hr, most probably by the spermatozoa's own power of locomotion.