Download Chemistry in America 1876–1976: Historical Indicators by Arnold Thackray PDF

By Arnold Thackray

This examine is an outgrowth of our curiosity within the heritage of contemporary chemistry. The paucity of trustworthy, quantitative wisdom approximately earlier technology used to be introduced domestic forcibly to us after we undertook a learn seminar within the comparative historical past of recent chemistry in Britain, Germany, and the USA. That seminar, which came about on the collage of Pennsylvania within the spring of 1975, used to be paralleled through one dedicated to the paintings of the "Annales School". the 2 seminars jointly catalyzed the try to build historic measures of swap in elements of 1 technological know-how, or "chem­ ical indicators". the current quantity screens our effects. might be our labors will be such a lot usefully in comparison with the paintings of these scholars of medieval technology who dedicate their top efforts to the determine­ ment of texts. in basic terms while applicable texts were comprised of fragmentary and corrupt resources can students stream directly to the extra gratifying company of creating historical past. So too within the sleek interval, an important pre­ liminary to the total historical past of any clinical occupation is the developing of trustworthy quantitative details within the kind of statistical sequence. This quantity doesn't provide background. in its place it offers convinced aspect- signs -- that could be valuable to members attracted to the heritage of yank chemistry and chemical undefined, and suggestive for policy.

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F. Smith, 1926, and III, F. W. Clarke, 1909. Chemistry's contributions to agriculture are ably assessed in III, Wiley, 1899. , 1915; III, Haynes, 1954a, 239-399; and III, Richardson, 1908. On the rapid development of the organic chemicals industry in America after World War I, see III, Haynes, 1945b; III, Herty, 1925; and III, Stine, 1940. For contemporary appraisals of the organic chemist's role in industrial progress, see, for example, III, Rose, 1920;111, Norris, 1932;and III, Howe, 1937, 312.

A third, related trend has been the steady shift away from chemical education as vocational preparation and toward chemical education as cultural instrument. 1. 1-4 plots the same data on semilogarithmic axes. For the past century the trend of degree conft:rral in all subjects has been one of exponential growth on the bachelors, masters, and doctoral levels. 4 This exponential growth is a prime become practicing chemists at all, a trend characterized as "well-established" in another ACS report (IB, ACS, 1973,424; see also IB, ACS, 1977b, 41).

In 1948 there was a proposal to make the AIC a division of the ACS for professional affairs. Twelve years earlier, the ACS had formed a Committee for Improving the Professional Status of the Chemist, and the 1972 establishment of a Division of Professional Relations testifies to continuing concern among the ACS rank-and-file with the problems of professional life. For ACS activities in this area in the 1930's and 1940s, see III, Browne and Weeks, 1952,228-248. CHEMISTRY AS OCCUPATION AND PROFESSION 33 Accrediting Educational Institutions, the ACS sought to raise the standard of undergraduate training in chemistry.

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