By A. Viidik (auth.), Anthony Ratcliffe, Savio L-Y. Woo, Van C. Mow (eds.)
Historical folklore exhibits that Asklepios (circa 900 BC), the fir~t western health care provider of old Greece, handled many sufferers with rheumatic illnesses of one joints ,2. Later, Hippocrates (circa four hundred BC), who claimed to have discovered from Asklepios, used the time period arthritis in connection with joint illnesses: "When the sickness of arthritis moves, acute irritation and soreness assaults the joints of the physique ... ". certainly, arthritic joint affliction dates a lot farther again into antiquity than Asklepios. Many smooth anthropologists have famous degenerative joint sickness within the fossils of Neanderthal guy (archanthropus europeus petraloniensis) or even in these of dinosaurs. newer medical stories on joints date again to the paintings of the good English anatomist Hunter who wrote "The constitution and ailments of Articular Cartilage" within the Philosophical Transactions of London in 1743. The suggestion that osteoarthritis effects from the donning away of cartilage used to be copiously documented by way of the histological observations of the German doctor Ecker in 1843. this concept was once extra supported by means of Pommer (1927) who felt that mechanical stresses performed vital roles within the initiation and propagation of cartilage lesions resulting in osteoarthritis. This similar end was once reached by means of the assembled special specialists at a countrywide Institutes of wellbeing and fitness Workshop three held in 1986 .
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Additional resources for Biomechanics of Diarthrodial Joints: Volume I
Viidik A: Connective tissues - possible implications of the temporal changes for the aging process. Mech Age Dev 1979a;9:267-285. 1 N (ed): Progress in Biomechanics. Alphen aan den Rijn, Sijthoff & Nordhoff, 1979b, pp 75-113. Viidik A: Mechanical properties of parallel-fibred collagenous tissues, in Viidik A, Vuust J (eds): Biology of Collagen. London, Academic Press, 1980a, pp 237255. Viidik A: Interdependence between structure and function in collagenous tissues, in Viidik A, Vuust J (eds): Biology of Collagen.
The normal functional demand seems to be higher on flexor than extensor muscles, since they have a higher collagen content per unit tendon length. It might be concluded that some tendons have reached their "trainability" limit during habitual living, while others are less heavily used and therefore have the potential to respond to physical training. Our knowledge of the effects of training on the viscoelastic properties of tendons is nonexisting and that of ligaments limited. Viidik (1968b) found the stress relaxation in rabbit anterior cruciate ligaments more pronounced after exercise.
Increased strength of have been reported for rabbit (Viidik 1%7) and dog (Tipton et al. 1970) ligaments and those in male rats (Tipton et al. 1974), while no such effect was found for female rats (Booth & Tipton 1%9). Likewise, while there are effects on tendons in rabbits (Viidik 1%7, 1%9), no changes were found in mice (Kiiskinen 1977). A plausible explanation is differences between species and between tendon and ligament types. Woo et al. (1980, 1982) demonstrated that the initial flexor stiffness of flexor tendons did not increase in trained pigs compared to sedentary ones, while there' was a pronounced effect on extensor tendons.