Download Biological and Environmental Aspects of Chromium by S. Langard, S. Langård PDF

By S. Langard, S. Langård

Organic and Environmental points of Chromium specializes in the organic and environmental facets of chromium and its compounds, with emphasis at the most crucial elements in their toxicology and body structure. themes lined variety from the creation and occupational publicity of chromium compounds to the presence of chromium in air, soil, and ordinary waters. The purposes of chromium in telephone biology and medication also are discussed.

Comprised of eleven chapters, this quantity starts with an summary of the poisonous and carcinogenic results of chromium and chromium compounds, through a dialogue at the creation and occupational publicity of chromium compounds. The reader is then brought to the extra universal analytical tools utilized in the decision of chromium in environmental and organic samples. next chapters discover the dietary position of chromium; absorption, shipping, and excretion of chromium in people and animals; mutagenic and cytogenetic results of chromium compounds; and organ toxicity of chromium in animals. The carcinogenic results of chromium, together with its results at the epidermis, also are considered.

This monograph can be of curiosity to scholars, practitioners, and researchers within the fields of biology, body structure, and chemistry, in addition to people with an aim curiosity within the ways that chromium and its compounds act in organic fabrics and within the human atmosphere.

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Sample text

Hafez et al. (1979) have shown that soil chromium can be oxidized to the hexavalent form at elevated temperatures reached in surface soil due to brush fires. Bartlett and James (1979) showed that when chromium chloride is added to many soils, some of it is oxidized to Cr(VI). They believe that soil manganese is responsible for this oxidation. Bloomfield and Pruden (1980) found the method Bartlett and James (1979) used to detect Cr(VI) to be unreliable in soil they studied but also showed that Cr(VI) was not totally reduced in several soils over a period of 35 days.

2) ? 25 ? 25 ? a. Range in parenthesis. b. Based on analysis of standard samples. e. 2-seconds old) fume may contain 5% water soluble Cr(VI) or more. A conservate approach would be to consider all chromium as Cr(VI) in this industry. 9 Process dependent exposure to chromium. 29 30 R. M. Stern is found only in 4% of the particles, while the 10% Cr content of the MIG fume is distributed among over 60% of the particles analyzed. 9. Here the average 8-hour exposure to total fume, total Cr, soluble Cr(VI) and insoluble Cr(VI) is shown for MIG/SS, and MMA/SS welders, together with values expected in the general nonstainless welding shop background.

Proposed standard analytical technique for Cr( VI) determination in welding fume* I) Determination of water soluble Cr(VI): Approximately 5—10 mg fume is placed in a 50 ml beaker. 00 ml deionized water. Shake at room temperature for 30 min. 45 μ millipore cellulose acetate membrane filter {do not rinse). The Cr(VI) content of the filtrate is measured with atomabsorption spectrometry (air/ acetylene) (reducing flame), and compared with aqueous Cr standards. The water soluble Cr(VI) concentration is then determined from the filtrate Cr concent r a t i o n anH t h p i n i t i a l c a m n l p w e i g h t (Note: It has been observed that for welding fumes the water soluble chromium fraction is composed only of Cr(VI), and it is therefore proposed that the diphenylcarbizide method is not necessary, and should be replaced by the simple technique described above).

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