By Igor V. Minin, Oleg V. Minin
The short straight forward fundamentals of antenna arrays -- Lens applicants to antenna array -- FZP lens array -- a few fields of lens array functions
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Extra resources for Basic Principles of Fresnel Antenna Arrays
As shown in Fig. 21a, rays from a source (S) pass through a diffractive element to a detection point (F). The rays have a phase at F, which depends on the positions of S and of F, the distance between them, and on the point where the ray went through the diffractive element. The path length of the shortest ray connecting S and F, sometimes called the direct ray, is R=|SO|+|OF|. Historically, beginning with Fresnel, the phase of a general ray with path length r=r1+r2 (where r1=|SM| and r2=|MF|) has been computed by subtracting R from r, implicitly assuming that the distance R of the shortest ray defines the phase origin θref =0° or reference phase.
The authors  also extend the concept of subwavelength DEs to longer millimeter wavelengths. To design DEs with spatially varying effective properties, a cell-encoding scheme was employed. In this process, a DE with a desired 34 1 The Brief Elementary Basics of Antenna Arrays continuous phase response was approximated by a number of finite size cells. Each cell is assigned a single desired phase value. 15 Diffractive Photonic Crystal Lens One of the complex electromagnetic systems of interest to us is a photonic crystal, a periodic dielectric structure with lattice spacing of the order of the wavelength of the electromagnetic wave.
This makes it possible to considerably suppress the spurious central maximum even for a binary diffractive element and to increase field intensity in the ring itself through spatial redistribution of energy. Similarly, it is possible to correct the shape of the focusing region. For instance, the problem posed by focusing radiation onto a ring with maximum intensity at a point Rk was solved in this manner, that is, through optimization of the type: I ∼ min ⎪U(Rk,0,B)U*(Rk,0,B)⎪. Ro The results of optimizing the focusing properties of diffractive optical elements are shown in Fig.