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By R Muniappan; et al

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Other remarks: N. formosana is difficult to separate from a closely related black aphid, N. oliveri (Essig). Fig. 11. The aphid, Neotoxoptera formosana, on an onion leaf Pests of Pepper 47 Common name: Onion fly Scientific name: Delia (Hylemya) antiqua (Meigen) Order: Diptera Family: Anthomyiidae Distribution: Europe, Cyprus, India, Iran, Israel, Japan, Korea, Turkey, Egypt, Canada, Mexico, North America, Brazil, Colombia Hosts: Onion, garlic, shallot, leek Life cycle: White elongate eggs are laid in groups on the shoots, leaves, bulbs, and in the soil at the base of the plants.

38 Fig. 1. Adult of Earias vittella Pests of Major Vegetable Crops Fig. 2. , and Goryphus nursei have been reported. The wasp, Eumenes petiolata, was found stocking its nests with the caterpillars of E. vittella. In Malaysia, a braconid parasitoid was recorded. Additionally, a predatory lacewing has been reported to feed on eggs of E. vittella. Common names: Sweet potato whitefly, cotton whitefly, tobacco whitefly (B. argentifolii or Biotype B – silverleaf whitefly) Scientific name: Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Order: Hemiptera Family: Aleyrodidae Distribution: Tropical and subtropical areas of the world Hosts: These whiteflies have a wide host range of over 500 herbaceous annuals including cotton, okra, tomato, eggplant, peppers, beans, cassava, cucurbits, potato, sweet potato, and crucifers (De Barro, 1995; Bosco and Caciagli, 1998).

Order: Lepidoptera Family: Pyralidae Distribution: Europe, Africa, Asia, Pacific Islands Hosts: Brassicaceae Life cycle: Eggs are ovoid and white when laid and turn pinkish the next day. Eggs are laid singly or in groups on the leaves and hatch in 2–9 days. Newly-hatched larvae bore into the leaf tissue and either tunnel into the leaf lamina and midrib or graze on the plant tissue while remaining under a silken web. Larvae often feed on the terminal buds, causing distortion and death of seedlings.

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