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Phil. Mag. 1, 139 (1926). ENGEL, A. VON. Ionized Gases. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1965, p. 125. JEANS, J. H. Kinetic Theory of Gases. Cambridge, 1940, p. 198. HASTED, J. B. Physics of Atomic Collisions. Butterworths, London, 1964, p. 19. GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY BORN, M. Atomic Physics. Blackie, London, 1962. BROWN, S. C. Basic Data of Plasma Physics, 1966. T. Press, London, 1967. LOEB, L. B. Basic Processes of Gaseous Electronics. California, 1955. ENGEL, A. VON. Ionized Gases. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1965.

Breakdown value. Such a device is frequently made with cylindrical geometry, and the field is therefore not uniform. It is easy to show that the product ad in eqn. 1) must then be replaced by α άχ where rt and r2 are the radii of cathode and anode surfaces respectively. The ratio i/i0 is frequently called the multiplication factor or the electron multiplication. ) In a device like a photocell, it is found that there BREAKDOWN 59 exists a pressure for which the multiplication at fixed voltage is a maximum.

5). This is the Langevin theory. (6) Both theories are confirmed by experiment; the transition between them gives a maximum probability, occurring at about one atmosphere. Recombination is hardly ever expressed formally as a probability or cross-section. The rate of recombination is obviously directly proportional to the concentrations of both positive ions and negative ions, or electrons. Writing these as n+ and «_ gives dn+ an. _. 16) The constant of proportionality a is called the recombination coefficient, sometimes written ae for electron-ion and a{ for ion-ion recombination.

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