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Additional info for An introduction to Dena'ina grammer: The Kenai dialect
Page 56 Verb Themes General Concepts of the Verb: Verbs are structured around three elements: What is happening—the meaning of the verb theme When and how the meaning of the verb theme is happening as defined by morphemes indicating mode (or tense) and aspect The theme, mode, and aspect information interact and are not lineal— one doesn’t lead to the other. Readers will need to refer back and forth among the following sections to understand the concepts of theme, mode and aspect. Verb Theme and Roots Verb Themes are derived from roots, a concept introduced in an earlier section.
Ground squirrels were snared by her. Łuq’a shegh dighilagh. A fish swam in to me. qegh’uh hniqa tl’iłk’ehghałchesh way out from them they circled them qegh’ut gu dultlet he landed near them ey ghu hvegh’ut gu ki łu dezdu there near them he was sitting on a bush near O, a little ways from O Oeghdehch’en above O (in altitude) qeghdehch’en eygu qałnigiq’ dultlet he landed above them on a rock O-eghdeq above O, as in off the ground, or in altitude, on land qeghdeq hjengheltlet he jumped over them in the space above O-eghdeqch’ from or towards up above O O-eghdugh downriver from O naghdugh downriver from us O-eghkuh downriver from O naghkuhdna people downriver from us across from O, on the other O-eghk’uch’en side from O, on the side away from O Page 26 Postpositions (non-verb) O-eghna near O qut’un qeghna just breaking day (lit.
What are you looking for? Why, for what reason? why, how come, for what reason, what’s it for? Page 53 Verbs PART V: VERBS Introduction As with other Athabascan languages, the Dena’ina verb is among the most grammatically complex structures known in linguistics. A change in a prefix in one position can initiate a change in other positions—the rules are predictable but complex (see the Model of Verb Formation section). Moreover, the Dena’ina verb is not only a verb in the English sense of the term, indicating action or state of being, but contains a great deal of additional information such as who is involved in the speech event (pronouns) and a system to classifiy nouns as belonging to certain conceptual categories.