By V.A. Lefebvre
In this booklet moral platforms are defined within the language of arithmetic. normally arithmetic is believed to be a technological know-how of volume. certainly, manipulation of amounts constitutes a lot of arithmetic. straight forward utilized arithmetic offers with reckoning and size, the place concrete amounts are items of consciousness, akin to counting sheep or weighing corno however the operations on those amounts are played with the aid of symbols, from which concrete referents were 'abstracted out': three + five = eight whether the symbols stand for numbers of sheep or a whole bunch corno hence, the 1st precept that shows the facility of arithmetic is abstraction. it really is one ofthe 3 pillars on which the edifice of arithmetic rests. one other pillar is precision. often, guy communicates through phrases. W ords serve communique to the level that they discuss with issues, occasions, states of affairs, emotions of the speaker, etc. those are the meanings attributed to phrases. communique is winning to the level that the meanings coded upon phrases through the speaker correspond to the meanings decoded via the hearer. As is weH identified, the measure ofthis correspondence varies tremendously in numerous contexts of discourse and with the again grounds or attitudes of the audio system and hearers. arithmetic is a language within which the meanings ofthe symbols (the 'words' ofthis language) are totally certain. This precision is completed through abstraction. summary phrases are outlined through their kin to different phrases and by way of not anything else.
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Extra info for Algebra of Conscience: A Comparative Analysis of Western and Soviet Ethical Systems
A smile or a formal benevolence toward an adversary is interpreted as a manifestation of weakness and cowardice. The aggressiveness and compromiselessness of a Soviet man are not related to his personal peculiarities; they are normative features that are necessary for adequate runctioning in Soviet society. These standards, similar to those of language, do not belong to a single individual but rather are predetermined by the national culture of the country where the person was born and raised. The differences in the evaluation of ethical compromise and ethical confrontation by Americans and Soviets can be shown by direct experiment.
For example, let us find what formula aa+b is: (1) (2) (3) (4) apply Q) to apply ~ to apply Q) to apply ~ to formula aa+b and obtain aa+b; formula a8 +band obtain a A +B; formula a A + Band obtain a W ; formula a W and obtain A. 16 INDIVIDUALS, REFLECTION, AND INTERACTION 17 Thus the given formula is an individual designated by A. In this book only those formulae will be regarded which are either individuals or situations. In most cases the procedure for finding out what is a formula is trivial, and we will omit it in our treatment.
Knowing the distribution of one's agreements and disagreements we can find out the ethical system an individual belongs to, without any knowledge oj'his inner structure. We used this type ofreasoning when we discovered the significant differences between choices made by Americans and former Soviet citizens. However, the theory we develop here suggests that the inner structures of individuals belonging to different ethical systems are also significantly different. The following chapters are devoted to the study of these structures.