Download After Thought: The Computer Challenge To Human Intelligence by James Bailey PDF

By James Bailey

Through the 1st fifty years of the pc revolution, scientists were attempting to software digital circuits to technique info an analogous approach people do. Doing so has reassured us all that underlying each new desktop strength, regardless of how miraculously quick or complicated, are human suggestion methods and common sense. yet state-of-the-art desktop scientists are coming to determine that digital circuits relatively are alien, that the variation among the human brain and laptop potential isn't really simply one in all measure (how fast), yet of kind(how). the writer means that pcs “think” most sensible while their “thoughts” are allowed to emerge from the interaction of hundreds of thousands of tiny operations all interacting with one another in parallel. Why then, if pcs deliver to the desk such very assorted strengths and weaknesses, are we nonetheless attempting to software them to imagine like people? a piece that levels commonly over the background of rules from Galileo to Newton to Darwin but is simply as cozy within the state-of-the-art international of parallel processing that's at this very second yielding a brand new kind of intelligence, After proposal describes why the genuine computing device age is simply beginning.

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Extra resources for After Thought: The Computer Challenge To Human Intelligence

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Formulations that used to be specific now became "universal," leading natural philosophers to believe that the world, and perhaps God as well, was governed by universal law. Data changed, but the programs remained steadfastly the same. This Renaissance-era view of the world is still wired into modern multiuser electronic computers at the hardware level. Such computers have two memory-address spaces. One is for program instructions (sometimes called I-space) and is shared by many users because, of course, instructions never change.

Greek orbits never changed, and Greek planets never speeded up or slowed down. Then, during the Renaissance, as scientists gradually opened their minds to objects, including planets, that speeded up and slowed down, the old vocabulary died. The language of numbers and equations offered a much more natural, convenient, and concise way to incorporate ever-changing data values into the formulations. More than that, the use of variables allowed a single formulation to serve multiple situations. The Greeks had a separate diagram for each planet; Kepler and Newton offered single equations that sufficed for all.

Twice in this book, he departed from geometric orthodoxy. In an almost apologetic manner, he made Europe's first use of ars rei, or art of the thing, to do what he could not do with geometry. 48 AFTER THOUGHT In so doing, Regiomontanus flouted Aristotle's dictum that arithmetic could never be used to demonstrate things geometric, or vice versa. It would take another hundred years, however, for this barrier to crumble completely in the minds of European scientists. The technology of printing helped tip the balance.

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