By Ranko Matasović
This grammar will be used with a few warning, not just since it was once written through a linguist who's faraway from being a fluent speaker of Kabardian. it truly is mostly compilatory in nature, and plenty of examples have been drawn from the present works on Kabardian via M. L. Abitov, Mukhadin Kumakhov, and others. besides the fact that, i've got additionally excerpted and analyzed many sentences from the literature, specially from the Nart corpus (Nārtxar, 1951, Nārtxar, 2001), and a few examples have been elicited from local audio system. even if i've got relied seriously at the released scholarly works on Kabardian, my interpretations of the knowledge are often very diverse from these within the on hand literature. i've got attempted to method the Kabardian language from a typological standpoint, evaluating its linguistic gains, which can seem unusual to audio system of Indo-European languages, to comparable positive aspects present in different languages of the area.
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Additional resources for A Short Grammar of East Circassian (Kabardian)
G. -af. "The kid made the shirt dirty" As the case marking on argument shows, the verbs containing the factitive prefix are transitive, just like the causative verbs. In a sense, the factitive is just a special type of denominative causative. The factitive prefix immediately precedes the verbal root. It can be freely combined with the causative prefix, which it follows, cf. g. śābə "soft", wəśabən "to make soft, soften", yaġawəśabən "make someone soften (something). ACTIVE (DYNAMIC) AND STATIVE VERBS 51 Matasović: A Short Grammar of Kabardian The division into dynamic and stative verbs does not coincide with the division into transitive and intransitive verbs.
A-ś old man-ERG. money-NOM. -hold-af. -NOM like-impf. "The old man liked to speak" The inverse construction corresponds to Latin constructions of the type mihi est "it is to me", mihi placet "it is pleasing to me, I like". From the point of view of the abovementioned case assignment rules these verbs present no problem, because their only (and thus also the lowest ranking) macrorole is marked for the Nominative case. e. -af. e. it cannot appear in the form *thamāda-r) 44. e. -af. -af. -watch-pl.
I am buying a book from a friend for twenty pounds). Verb valency is a semantic concept, realized in syntax through the category of transitivity. In most languages, bi- and trivalent verbs are realized as transitive verbs, i. e. verbs which have a compulsory nominal complement (direct object), possibly two complements (direct and indirect object). Arguments of bivalent verbs express different thematic roles according to the types of meaning they express. For example, verbs of giving (to give, to donate) always distinguish between the sender ("the person who is giving"), the theme ("the thing which is being given") and the recipient ("the person to whom something is being given"), and verbs of seeing distinguish between the thematic roles of the stimulus ("what is being seen") and the experiencer ("the person who is seeing").