By Peter Rickard
This well-established and well known e-book offers scholars with all of the linguistic heritage they want for learning any interval of French literature. For the second one variation the textual content has been revised and up-to-date all through, and the 2 ultimate chapters on modern French, and its place as a global language, were thoroughly rewritten. beginning with a quick description of the Vulgar Latin spoken in Gaul, and the earliest recorded kinds of French, Peter Rickard lines the advance of the language during the later center a while and Renaissance to teach the way it turned standardized in a close to smooth shape within the 17th and eighteenth centuries.
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Extra resources for A History of the French Language
It is sandwiched between a Latin poem on the same The language of the earliest French texts 27 subject and a German one (see above, p. 24) about the victory of Louis III over the Vikings at Saucourt in 881. Though short, the French Sequence is linguistically more illuminating than the Oaths. g. anima, rex, Christus, clementia) its spelling in general throws a good deal of light on the phonetic state of the language. If it still hesitates over the notation of neutral [ə] (written indifferently with a or with e, as in anima, pulcella but figure, cose, polle, domnizelle), on the other hand it clearly and consistently indicates diphthongisation, thereby marking a considerable advance on the crude system of notation used in this respect by the scribe of the Strasbourg Oaths; hence: buona
Indeed, Saint-Denis soon became the spiritual centre of the kingdom. Even so, by the end of the eleventh century, France was far from being united under direct rule from Paris. All that can be said is that by this time Paris was definitely the capital. Conditions were at least somewhat more stable than they had been, and learning began to flourish in the great monasteries and in such cities as Chartres, Rheims and Orleans. The careful cultivation of Latin letters was firmly established well before the twelfth century.
Haskins has shown, was that the feudal ties were only vertical and not lateral. Vassals had certain obligations to their overlord, as he had to them (though the late Carolingian kings were seldom able to fulfil them), but vassals had no obligations to each other, and they both could and did carry on private wars, or open brigandage, to the exclusion of any wider feeling of unity, let alone national awareness. Communities tended to be purely local in orientation, largely or even wholly self-sufficient in their economy.