By Mairi Blackings, Nigel Fabb
This grammar offers the most specified bills to be had of the syntax of a Nilo-Saharan language. It absolutely describes many of the strange features of Ma'di, together with different note orders linked to diversified tenses, the particle-based modal and concentration platforms, the entire variety of adverbials, and the constitution and which means of the noun word. The grammar additionally describes the phonetics, phonology, morphology, and points of the lexicon of the language.
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Extra info for A Grammar of Ma’di
Thus f5r5 'faint in appearance' has only -ATR vowels, and ford 'compound, arena' has only +ATR vowels; similarly Into 'to wring, twist' has only -ATR vowels and Inlo 'to feel like throwing up' has only +ATR vowels. ATR harmony is the only restriction on vowel sequences within a word; all other features of vowels are freely combinable. The -ATR status of [a] is confirmed by the fact that it never co-occurs with a +ATR vowel within a monomorpheme. 1. Disharmony within a monomorphemic word There are a few loanwords where the vowels do not harmonize.
Vowels are phonetically slightly nasalized in conjunction with the deletion of [n] in some cases, but nasalization is not phonemic. Thus nä 'the aforementioned house' can realize as djoa with nasalization of the final vowel or both vowels. 3. 1. Syllable structure There are two types of syllable: V and CV. 226 Download Date | 7/29/12 7:52 PM Restrictions on consonant-vowel sequences 35 'bananas'. '; V syllables are however most commonly found at the beginning of a word. Verbs of one syllable are consonant-initial with a CV structure.
Level tones Phonemically, there are three level tones: high, mid and low. sa sä sa 'tail' 'to plant, to scour' 'to intervene and bring a fight etc. to an end' Tones are contextually unrestricted in occurrence: all tones appear on all vowels after all consonants. There is thus no interaction of consonant voicing and tone in sä 'to plant, to scour' vs. zä 'to defeat, to pain'. 2. Contour tones: all arise by sandhi There may be no underlying (phonemic) contour tones. High-Low tonal sequences are found in some words.