By Jeffrey Heath
This article offers grammar in English of a language of the Songhay relations of West Africa. The emphasis is on grammatical different types and morphosyntax. issues contain: focalization and relativization, logophoric pronouns, conjunctions and serial verbs.
Read or Download A Grammar of Koyra Chiini: The Songhay of Timbuktu (Mouton Grammar Library, 19) PDF
Similar foreign language dictionaries & thesauruses books
This version is written in English. despite the fact that, there's a working German glossary on the backside of every web page for the tougher English phrases highlighted within the textual content. there are lots of versions of O Pioneers! . This version will be precious in the event you could lik
Whether you don't like crossword puzzles, you could turn out loving those. Designed for mother-tongue or thoroughly fluent audio system of German eager to enhance their English talents, the puzzles can also be interesting to English audio system. they're formatted in order that each one puzzle should be solved in 15 to half-hour.
Whether you don't like crossword puzzles, you'll prove loving those. Designed for mother-tongue or thoroughly fluent audio system of German eager to enhance their English abilities, the puzzles can also be exciting to English audio system. they're formatted in order that each one puzzle might be solved in 15 to half-hour.
A simple introductory path in Spoken eastern within the Kunrei-Siki transcription procedure. Thirty classes and workouts. It explains the 2 romanization approach: the Hepburn approach and the Kunrei-Siki, either crucial for learning eastern with web. lots of lengthy routines with key for model and retro-version.
- Essential Chinese: Speak Chinese with Confidence!
- A Midsummer Night's Dream (Webster's Spanish Thesaurus Edition)
- The Hausa Language: An Encyclopedic Reference Grammar
- Continuing Vietnamese
Additional info for A Grammar of Koyra Chiini: The Songhay of Timbuktu (Mouton Grammar Library, 19)
1). (35a), where the quality of the second input vowel prevails, is the productive pattern, and is compatible with the further data on contractions in the following sections. An approximation to the productive contraction rule can be given as (36). (36) VV-Contraction (simplified) V,(:) + V2 -> V2: That is, two vowels may combine to form a surface long vowel with the quality features of the second input vowel. The second input vowel is almost always short, since no grammatical morphemes and very few stems begin with a long vowel.
G. meysa, but there is no evidence against the other interpretation. There are a small number of cases of dialectal variation between a pronunciation with syllable-final nasal and an alternative with nasalized vowel or diphthongal coda. Most involve CVN stems: dan ~ daw- daw 'cross', hem ~ hee 'weep', mom ~ mow ~ mow 'hear', nan ~ now ~ now 'abandon'. In each case, the pronunciation with nasal consonant is standard in Timbuktu. On the other hand, in the bisyllabic stem hine ~ hiye-tiiye 'tooth', variation occurs even within Timbuktu.
In Timbuktu I also had difficulty distinguishing a from o in several words of the type Cjqgu and C_mbu, the vowel filling the blank often being heard as [o]: joggu 'hundred', noqgu 'place', worjgu 'war' and 'refuse', combu 'glass, bowl', sombu 'lift (child to breast)'. I generally write them as just shown, with o, in texts but give both pronunciations (if attested) in the dictionary. I have heard a consistently in gambu 'door', baqgu 'floodplain' (or 'circumcision'), and hambur 'fear'; I have heard o consistently in fombu 'melon seeds', jombu 'grain residue after pounding', and hoijgu 'believe'.