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Additional resources for A grammar of Acehnese on the basis of a dialect of north Aceh (Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde)

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Court (1970), in an excellent survey of nasalisation in the Indonesian region, reports similar phenomena for Ulu Muar Malay from Malaya and for three Dayak languages. McGinn (1982) and Coady and McGinn (1982) describe a series of "barred nasals" for Rejang which contrast with ordinary nasals and which would appear to be similar to Acehnese funny nasals. They make the observation: "perceptually the main cue for this contrast ... lies in the vowel rather than the consonant" (p446). Coady and McGinn are not aware that this is a regional characteristic of Indonesia and Malaysia, for they refer to Rejang's barred nasals as "a puzzling and rare phenomenon among the languages of the world" (p446) and claim that: "These special nasals have not been reported in any other Sumatran language" (p437).

Vowel Alternation Unstressed vowels in Acehnese are particularly unstable, v a r y i n g greatly across and within dialects. T h i s variation does not have strictly regular conditioning: it occurs on a word for word basis. ) V i r t u a l l y all variation involves / i / ~ / i u / — / u / . 5. Reduplication Reduplication has various functions. 1). However some words have reduplicated roots, including many Morphology 39 animal names: u/ói' -u/dA-' 'thoughtlessly set on one's own way' bang^ -bang^ 'butterfly' gót^ -göó 'bird type' kili' -kili' 'a type of metal link on a rope of a fishing net' tifcè' -u6ö' 'jelly fish' and in a few cases reduplication is a word formation process: the root form may have a different meaning; it may even be a different part of speech: g'eng^ -g'ong^ 'jew's harp'; g'ong 'sound of a jew's harp' surók^ -rók^ 'type of cricket'; surök 'creep in a narrow passage' Thus reduplication is: [i] a way of emphasising words; [ii] a structural feature of some word roots; [iii] a means of word formation.

There is a type of exception that illustrates this rule. 1). Here =neuh is formally enclitic to droe, so h is kept, even though droe=neuh 'you' is itself proclitic to nyan, forming a eompound phrase. T o account for this one needs to allow for a multi-level structure of phrases. The rule of h epenthesis works at the level of the inner phrase, before the demonstrative is added. Compare this example with (3-8) where = n e u = is initially enclitic to droe=, yet it has no epenthetic h. 6). e. for words that in another context could be stressed.

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